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Marriages of the Four Caliphs and the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم)

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Introduction

Nikah is an Arabic term used for marriage. It means “contract.” The Quran specifically refers to marriage as “Mithaqun Ghalithun,” which means “a strong covenant.”

“and they have taken a strong pledge (Mithaqun Ghalithun) from you” (Quran, 4:21)

The seriousness of this covenant becomes obvious when one finds the same term (Mithaqun Ghalithun) being used for the covenant made between Allah and the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) before granting him the responsibility of the Prophethood. (Quran 33:7)

The Quran also uses the Arabic word “Hisn” in reference to marriage, which likens marriage to being a fortress of righteousness.

Allah Almighty also commands the Muslims to only marry righteous people:

“And marry such of you as are single and the pious” (Quran, 24:32)

Conversely, it is Haram for a Muslim to marry an unrighteous person. The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) declared:

“You should marry the religious woman, otherwise you will be a loser.” (Sahih Bukhari)

The responsibility of a woman is given to the father, who is the Wali. It is his duty to find her a suitable match. It is Haram for a father to give his daughter to a sinful man, and there Ijma (consensus) on this amongst both the Sunni and Shia scholars.

Uthman bin Affan (رضّى الله عنه)

The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) gave two of his daughters, Ruqayyah (رضّى الله عنها) and Umm Kulthoom (رضّى الله عنها), in marriage to Uthman bin Affan (رضّى الله عنه). Uthman (رضّى الله عنه) first married Ruqayyah (رضّى الله عنها) but she died shortly afterwards. The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) then gave his other daughter to Uthman (رضّى الله عنه), and Uthman (رضّى الله عنه) subsequently married Umm Kulthoom (رضّى الله عنها). Because he had the unique honor of marrying not just one but two of the Prophet’s daughters, Uthman was given the title “the Man of Two Lights.” The Shia will sometimes try to deny these historical facts, but I shall cite as my source Al-Islam.org, which is the most reliable Shia website on the internet:

Al-Islam.org says
Khadija, peace be upon her, was the first woman who believed in the Prophet’s divine prophecy. She put all her wealth at his disposal to propagate and promote Islam. [39] Six children were born of his marriage: two sons named Qasim and Tahir who passed away as infants in Makkah and four daughers named Ruqiyah, Zaynab, Umm Kulsum, and Fatima, who was the most prominent and honoured of them all.

Al-Islam.org says
Ruqayya married the third caliph `Uthman ibn `Affan and migrated with him to Ethiopia in 615 A.D., five years after the inception of the prophetic mission, accompanied by no more than nine others. That was the first of two such migrations. After coming back home, she died in Medina in 2 A.H. and was buried at Jannatul Baqee`. `Uthman then married her sister Ummu Kulthoom in Rabi` al-Awwal of the next (third) Hijri year. Ummu Kulthoom lived with her husband for about six years before dying in 9 A.H., leaving no children.

We have already accepted the fact that a father can only give his daughter in marriage to a suitable match, one who is “pious” (Quran, 24:32), and who is not an evil-doer. Therefore, the fact that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) gave his daughters to Uthman (رضّى الله عنه) is proof enough of his good character. It is a refutation against all of the accusations and slander levied against Uthman (رضّى الله عنه) by the Shia propagandists. In fact, if the Shia say that Uthman (رضّى الله عنه) was an evil person, then they are declaring that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) violated the Quran and his own sayings by giving his daughter to an evil person. Indeed, what noble character Uthman (رضّى الله عنه) must have had that he got the honor of marrying not just one, but two of the Prophet’s daughters.

Abu Bakr (رضّى الله عنه)

Abu Bakr (رضّى الله عنه), the first Caliph, was so close and dear to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) that he gifted his daughter in marriage to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم). Her name was Aisha (رضّى الله عنها), whom the Shia spread malicious slander against. Would the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) really marry someone who was sinful and an evil-doer? This is accusing the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) of sinning and violating the Quran as well as his own sayings. By marrying Abu Bakr’s daughter, the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) showed his undying solidarity with Abu Bakr (رضّى الله عنه), who was his best friend and top lieutenant.

Umar bin Khattab (رضّى الله عنه)

Umar bin Khattab (رضّى الله عنه), the second Caliph, was also very close to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم); he too gave his daughter, Hafsa (رضّى الله عنها), in marriage to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم).

Ali ibn Abi Talib (رضّى الله عنه) gave his daughter, Umm Kulthoom bint Ali, in marriage to Umar (رضّى الله عنه). This very fact shatters the entire Shia paradigm, and the false idea that the Three Caliphs were enemies of Ali (رضّى الله عنه). The marriage of Umar (رضّى الله عنه) to Umm Kulthoom is documented in Al-Kafi, which is considered the most authentic book of Shia Hadith.

Conclusion

Ali (رضّى الله عنه) was on very good terms with the Three Caliphs, and they were Sahabah (Companions) one to another. Ali (رضّى الله عنه) served as vizier and top aid to all three Caliphs; therefore, the Shia historical accounts of bad blood between the House of Ali (رضّى الله عنه) and the Three Caliphs is false.

As can be seen, all of the Three Caliphs (which the Shia insult and call the “three fools”) were linked to Prophet Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) through marriage, blood, or both. That is how close companions the Three Caliphs and the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) were.

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